The Paris Peace Conference was held in 1919 and resulted in five treaties. The Treaty of Versailles was signed with Germany on June 28. There was also the Treaty of Saint-Germain with Austria (September 10), the Treaty of Neuilly with Bulgaria (November 27), the Treaty of Trianon with Hungary (June 6, 1920), and the Treaty of Sevres with Turkey (August 10, 1920), modified in 1923.
The defeated countries viewed Woodrow Wilson as the great hope. Lloyd George of England and Clemenceau of France were considered hard-liners. They were forced by public opinion to adhere to a vengeful peace. The Americans, while suffering plenty of casualties, came out of the war relatively unscathed compared to the massive loss of life, limb, hope, idealism, material, natural resources and wealth of England and France. Especially France. World War I was the last straw for this old country. After centuries of fighting with the English, Napoleon’s failed attempt to conquer the world in her name, two wars with Germany in 44 years, the new realities of modern warfare changed the nature of the country. She was now subject to the protections of allies. Her people had lost the itch for expansionism. Clemenceau was quoted saying that war was now too important for the generals, which was his admission that militarism had to be replaced by statesmanship. War now involved more than just soldiers on isolated fields of battle. Entire countries were ravaged by war, which like a cancer ate at every fabric of society, leaving starvation, disease, death, refugees and massive loss of wealth in its wake. The devil works that way.
Wilson asked for universal disarmament. In compromising to get his dream, the League of Nations, off the ground he agreed to only the disarmament of the Central Powers. Had Wilson had his way, France, England and the U.S. would have been helpless instead of "ready" to meet the German challenge 20 years later. Germany was limited to an army of 100,000 men. Compulsory service was eliminated, voluntary enlistment was limited to 12 years, a limited navy was permitted, with submarines and aeroplanes not allowed. The other defeated countries, Austria, Hungary and Bulgaria, faced similar restrictions.
Clemenceau and Wilson opposed Clemenceau’s plan to annex the Left Bank of the Rhine as a security zone rich with coal mines and industry known as the Saar. Wilson said that millions of Germans lived in this area and it would cause great dissension. Wilson signed an agreement with France and Great Britain to guard against German aggression for 15 years. Italy was awarded Trentino, Trieste and a large portion of Istria, which placed a large number of Adriatic Slavs under their control. Yugoslavia was formed. Immediately disputes between the inhabitants and Italian “adventurers” ensued. Germany lost all her colonial possessions, which were added to the British Empire and included parts of East Africa and the Cameroons. German New Guinea and Samoa were added on to British West African and Pacific colonies in South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Various other territories went to France and Japan.
The Ottoman Empire was carved up after centuries of rule. The Turks had an uprising under Kemal Pasha. Secret treaties were signed, permitting Turkey to retain Asia Minor, Constantinople, and Adrianople in Thrace. Armenia was returned. Syria went to France. Great Britain took over Mesopotamia, Transjordan and Palestine. Italy received the Dodecanese Islands and the Aegean. Hejaz on the Red Sea, Arabian territory, remained independent.
Wilson’s great Democratic ideal, which over the century would be viewed as the greater vision, was for more self-determination than was allowed. He saw the post-war territorial agreements as simply colonization, which caused nothing but problems. Wilson had a modern view of people being able to rule themselves, which had still not sunk into most European or even Middle Eastern, and certainly not yet African mindsets. Particularly countries populated by people of “color,” “natives” or whatever pejorative applies were not viewed as “advanced” enough to rule themselves. But Wilson’s American idealism was based on the desire for freedom. He felt that this yearning beat in the heart of all men and would overcome any lack of “advancement.”
Japan turned out to be the recipient of little-known peace dividends, despite having not really participated in the war. Her acquisition of Shantung, China angered Wilson. One lesson of major wars is that countries that are not major players in the conflict can emerge as world powers in the peace. Japan benefited from the Great War. After World War II, the Soviet Union and China emerged as powers. In these cases, both countries participated in the war, although in China’s case their participation was scattered; part Communist Revolution, part guerilla war, part nationalism, part cowardice and part bravery. The point is that the U.S.S.R. and China were rather backward nations prior to the war, and were movers and shakers after it. Meanwhile, traditional powers like Britain and France, victors in principle twice in the 20th Century, saw their power and influence cut in half or more. The U.S. participated in World War I, but only at the end, yet came out of it a superpower. Even though they did not start fighting at the beginning of World War II, they came out of it a mega-superpower. Territories that seemed unimportant, even unknown, became major battlegrounds after wars.
North Africa became the prize after World War I. More and more exploration showed the area to be full of natural resources. The Korean Peninsula and Southeast Asia (Indochina, Laos, Cambodia) could not have been less prominent prior to World War II. We know all about them now.
Wilson wanted the “colonies” to be entrusted to the administration of the League of Nations. They would be known as mandates. Wilson also had the vision to oppose punitive indemnities and reparations on Germany. The Europeans provided a laundry list of damages. By 1921 that figure had reached $33 billion. This was imposed on Germany and caused a terrible economic depression, which led to their great unrest. In later years this figure was reduced and finally canceled. By then much of the “damage” had been done. While the vision of magnanimity seems obvious in retrospect, the fact is that Germany did wage an aggressive war on the rest of Europe. The cost was immeasurable, even if confined to pure dollars and cents. The desire of the Allies to repair their economies with German money was all but irresistible at the time.
Poland, which had begged Napoleon for independence and tried to woo him with sexual inducements for this right, was restored. The question of the “Danzig corridor” came up, because it cut off the old East Prussia from the rest of Germany. Baltic states Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland emerged. The Austro-Hungarian Empire was divided into Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia and an enlarged Romania. Yugoslavia was made up of old kingdoms, Serbia and Montenegro, part of Bulgaria, and Bosnia-Herzegovina, and part of the Banat of Temesvar. Austria, thought by some to be an even greater military power than Germany before the war but exposed as 19th Century cavalry-heavy, was left with a small state of 6,500,000. Vienna was impoverished. Hungary was reduced to 8 million people. The nationalistic aspiration of varied small countries fulfilled some of Wilson’s desire to create self-determination. Old hatreds, fears, and ethnic rivalries rose in their stead, creating a very messy peace. Wilson’s League of Nations was supposed to provide the security to take care of these kinds of regional flare-ups. It looked promising, with four operating groups, a secretariat, council, assembly and international court of justice. It was supposed to prevent war, keep security, provide justice, and handle medicine and food shipments.
Germany provided the first spoke in the wheels of the League by refusing to sign on to it because it did not adhere to Wilson’s 14 points. They eventually came on board. The League went into operation at Versailles' Hall of Mirrors on June 23, 1919, where Bismarck had proclaimed German empire in 1871. France came out of the war a paper tiger resembling Austria before it. They built fixed fortifications to keep out future invaders, as if they were still living in the age of the Mongol hordes. George Patton said the fortifications were a “tribute to the stupidity of man.”
"If oceans and mountain ranges can be overcome," Patton said, "so can anything built by man."
Spoken by a true American in light of the transcontinental railroad, Panama Canal, re-building of San Francisco after the Great Earthquake, Mount Rushmore, Hoover Damn, the TVA, plus bridges connecting Brooklyn, Manhattan, San Francisco, Oakland and Marin County. These accomplishments were all the warning any potential warriors of the past 65 years should have had that involving themselves in war with the U.S. was the worst possible idea with only one conceivable outcome: Total defeat.
Any modern army could punch through French fortifications. Still, France and some other dreamers held to the fiction that as late as 1937-38, France had the most “powerful” military in the world. Indeed, they may have had more men officially in their army. Their state of readiness had been destroyed by the war and they would never possess the will to restore it.
Britain was a huge diplomatic power who had increased its colonial holdings in an era in which holding colonies were as much a burden as an asset. The reality of Britain is that they were gravely impaired by the lavish expenditures of the war, not to mention the loss of the flower of an entire generation. Most monarchies were eliminated. Modern economic internationalism replaced old feudalism. The U.S. came out of the war the big winner, but there were even chinks in their armor. Wilson became gravely ill and was incapacitated towards the end of his Presidency. His wife, Edith, handled the affairs of state in his place. Partly for this reason, the U.S. Senate refused to ratify American participation in the League of Nations.
Events in the Middle East took shape during the post-war 1920s and 1930s, shaping our world today. Certainly, these events have more real relevance to the 21st Century than Europe, where peace was finally secured once and for in the west in 1945, and in the east in 1989-91. But the Arab world is a powderkeg. Iran, not an Arab country, is Persian. Its residents speak Farsi. Iranian forces fought in the British force during the Great War, but their highest-ranking officer, Riza Khan, in 1919 joined with Sayyid Zia Tabatabai to overthrow the corrupt government. It had essentially become a bribe-taker of the English. Riza’s coup d’etat resulted in his deposing Ahmed Shah and installing himself as a military dictator/king. He hired Americans to modernize the Iranian economy, and modernity came to the country. In 1932, Riza canceled oil concessions with the West, causing internal dissension. Riza’s rule became ironhanded. Germany made overtures into Iranian trade, but the result was that Iran became isolated and backward.
The Ottoman Turks had ruled Iraq, the so-called "cradle of civilization," beginning in the 19th Century. In 1899 a Turkish-German construction contract had cemented the eventually disastrous alliance of the two countries. Germany built a railway running through Turkey and Mesopotamia to the Persian Gulf. This caused a threat to British interests at the Suez Canal, resulting in the Anglo-Indian Mesopotamian campaign in World War I. Modern Iraq dates to May, 1920 when Great Britain accepted the invite of the League of Nations to serve as the mandatory for Iraq. It was classified a Class A mandate, meaning it was ready for independence and self-government after brief rehabilitation and administrative training.
Great Britain promoted Emir Feisal as King of Iraq in 1921. Immediately disputes arose between the King, Britain and the nationalism movement over the length of time the country would be in mandate status. In 1927, Britain recognized an independent Iraq. This led to membership in the League of Nations as a constitutional monarchy. However, Britain maintained a force in the region because Iraq did not create a defensive force that could protect itself against hostile neighbors. As oil was discovered in the region the country increased in importance. Border disputes were settled with Saudi Arabia. The monarchy was divided when they tried to re-unite with Turkish tribes in an effort to restore some of the lost Ottoman power. King Feisal supported a modern economy. He had Iraq headed in the right direction, under the rule of his son Ghazi I, when he died just before World War II.
Exiled from Jerusalem since its fall to Rome in 70 A.D., the Jews had never given up hope of returning to the Promised Land. Jesus Christ had been the hoped-for Messiah who would lead their armies in shaking the yoke of Rome. In 132 the Jews had revolted militarily, without success. For centuries, the Jews wandered the Middle East and Europe, facing persecution. In 1897 a Zionist movement began, leading thousands of Jews to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. “The Jewish State”, published in 1896 by Dr. Theodor Herzl, gave great international impetus towards creating an independent country. Russian and Polish Jews fled the Czar. Palestinian Jews petitioned Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany to help in this endeavor, but were rebuffed.
The Balfour Declaration was issued by occupying Britain on November 2, 1917. It constituted the first internationally recognized step towards establishment of Palestine as the Jewish home. After the war, the mandate of Palestine was allotted to Great Britain, thus strengthening the Balfour agreement. The League of Nations approved the Palestinian mandate in 1922, with ratification by 51 nations plus the U.S. Congress.
In the 1920s and ‘30s, the British changed their “Jewish policy” from favoring re-settlement to a halt to Jewish immigration. Arab resistance, in a land that by 1939 was rich with oil, was viewed by the English as a key geo-political part of future strategy against Germany. It left the English thinking that it was better to avoid major controversy until the German question could be dealt with. The Arabs had rioted against the Jews from 1936-39, causing the British to cancel implementation of the Royal Commission’s partition doctrine. The British White Paper of 1939 decreed an end to Jewish immigration with the exception of 75,000 cases over five years. When World War II began, the entire question was put on hold.
The Ottoman Turks had taken control of Saudi Arabia in 1517. From then until 1901, it was nominally subject to Portuguese, British and Egyptian interests. In the 18th Century, a violent form of Islam entered into the culture when the Wahabi Arabs initiated a conservative religious reform movement, contemplating an independent Arabia. They inculcated the land with a strain of religious fervor that favored the concept that all infidels should be slaughtered, women given no rights whatsoever, issued numerous fatwas calling for violent torture and death for even minor offensives, and jihads that perverted the original concept of the term. The jihad is a term that we have come to associate with a call to arms and violence, mainly aimed at Christians, Jews, the Great Satan (America) and all infidels (non-Muslims). In reality, the jihad is supposed to be a personal “invoice,” a meditation based on improving the life of the individual through introspection and self-awareness. In this respect, it goes to the traditions of the Hindus and Greeks. The Wahabis helped to de-legitimize a term that in fact is a beautiful notion practiced by millions of peaceful Arabs and Muslims the world over. To put Wahabism in terms that might be better understood, think of them the way one might think of the Ku Klu Klan, who called themselves “Christians” while trying to drive out blacks, Jews, and Catholics. The difference, however, is that the Wahabis actually could find language in the Koran "justifying" their violence. No such language can be detected in the Old or New Testaments.
The Ottoman sultans put down Wahabi independence in the 19th Century. It somehow found a voice, which played to the devout Muslims who saw the more secular Turks and Westerners as the infidel invaders. The fact that Saudi Arabia is the home of Mecca seems to play into this fundamentalism. Ibn Saud became the 20th Century Wahabi leader. He and his father had been exiled at the court of the sheik of Kuwait. When Germany tried to create a terminal point for the Berlin-to-Baghdad railway, Ibn Saud inserted himself in the rivalry between Turkey, Great Britain and Germany. Saud created alliance with the English against the Turks. In 1901 he led a successful attack that captured Riyadh. He held the territory, resisting the Turks until World War I.
Ibn Saud and Britain had a marriage of convenience during the Great War. The British also did business with his rival, Husein ibn Ali of Hejaz. When the Turks crumbled in 1918, Husein lost the “game." After proclaiming himself king of the Arabs, the French and British withdrew support for him. This was because Husein wanted the French to leave Syria and for the Balfour Declaration to be annulled. Ibn Saud took advantage in Husein’s loss of control of his own people. They had forced him to abdicate while proclaiming himself caliph of Islam in 1924. Ibn Saud consolidated with the Hejaz (Husein’s power base) and the Asir. The modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was established in 1932. Three often-conflicting tenets immediately marked Saud’s rule. This was cooperation with the U.S. and other Arab states, while opposing the Israeli state.
Ibn Saud created arbitration treaties with Transjordan and Iraq. After a conflict with Yemen, he created friendship with them. They established friendship with Egypt in 1936. During World War II Ibn Saud was a spokesman for the region. Jealousy over the size, power and semi-hegemonic influence of Saudi Arabia began developing in the 1930s amongst its neighbors.
In 1914, when the Ottoman Turks took up their ill-fated alliance with Germany, negotiations started between the British and Grand Sherif Husein ibn-Ali of Mecca regarding Arab participation in the war. Arab independence would result when the Allies won. Husein was promised Syria, except for lands west of Damascus and Aleppo but including Palestine. In 1916, however, France and Great Britain signed the Sykes-Picot Agreement, giving control of the Syrian coast to France. The agreement is a major bone of contention in the history of Arab-Western relations. It created distrust among the Arabs. Syria was given only control of northern interior territories. The Balfour Declaration followed, causing more unrest. If that was not enough, the Bolsheviks, no longer representing a Russian ally but an enemy who wanted to make in-roads in the Middle East, disclosed to the Syrians the Sykes-Picot arrangement. The British still maintained "dedication" to Arab independence. President Wilson strongly favored it, which is indicated as part of his 14 Points. The Syrians did not trust the English.
However, they despised the Ottomans more. Therefore they fought alongside General Allenby in the successful capture of Damascus in 1918. Syria found itself under joint British, French and Arab rule. At the Paris Conference, Wilson advocated Syrian independence under a constitutional monarchy, part of the Feisal umbrella. It was ignored. Instead, at San Remo, Syria was assigned to France, cut off from Transjordan and Palestine. An agreement was reached whereby Feisal accepted the crown of Syria while the country stayed under French administration. He refused a number of French demands, however. The French then invaded Damascus. Hatred of the French ensued.
Wilson had wanted to provide independence to Syria as early as 1919-20. France insisted on virtually looting the country, then invading it militarily. This set the table for the modern “hate the West” faction of Middle East politics, not to mention French violence and heavy-handedness in other parts of the area. It is truly ironic to see that today it is the U.S. trying to make up for all these early mistakes while France sits on its hands, criticizing us for our efforts in cleaning up their mess. The same thing would happen in Vietnam. Sacre blueu!
The French administered French law to Syria, vainly trying to create an organic system. "Greater Syria" was carved into Lebanon, Latakia, Jebel el Druz, and Syria. Latakia and Jebel el Druz were merged into "greater Syria" in 1936. Some local autonomy prevailed, but the French administered poorly. A rebellion was immediately fomented in the name of the People’s Party, advocating French withdrawal. The French quelled all the rebellions with as much overwhelming force as possible, bombing Damascus after a sizable French force was roundly defeated.
France kept Syria under siege and imposed draconian policies. Then they tried to create rump elections that were little more than smokescreens for a Franco-Syrian treaty, allowing France to stand down. But France refused to deal with the Syrian delegations honestly. Their lies were exposed and known to the Syrians. Nationalist political factions made a consolidated Syrian system impossible. A general strike occurred in 1936 at the failure of France to grant independence. It looked like an acceptable solution had been reached when Syrian leaders were invited to Paris to negotiate and sign a treaty granting freedom to Syria, providing for certain French participation in the country for 25 years. It was a hopeful document.
The French government rejected its ratification. Then World War II started. The Middle East was left to fester over French perfidy. The mess was left for the U.S. to try and clean up.
The good old French were all too happy to bomb and strafe Arabs countries who were not strong enough to fight back. They did not do so to liberate or free Arabs from despotic regimes. During the years between the two wars, they did it to conquer and enrich themselves. They engaged in more military adventure than any other non-Oriental country that later fought in World War II. One would think they would have had the “edge” to take on the Germans when France was attacked in 1940. Alas, they reverted to their post-World War I “we’re tired of war” stance, leaving the fighting to the English, the Yanks, the Australians, the Canadians, the New Zealanders, and the rest of the men.
Aside from Syria, the “brave” French had gone in and “conquered” the Algerian coast in 1930. Just as the Syrians were able to defeat the French in battle, so were the Algerians. They held off the great French soldiers until 1947 when France, who had expended no energy fighting the Nazis, had enough left over to mop up the Algerians. Of course, they could not hold Algeria. French history is all anybody needs to know about why they are what they are.
Jordan was included in the unified Arab state promised to Grand Sheriff Husein ibn-Ali for his participation in the Arab revolt against the Turks during the Great War. It was originally a part of the Syrian state proclaimed from Damascus by a congress of Arab notables. Husein’s son, Feisal, was chosen King. French forces compelled Feisal to quit Syria. The French never occupied Transjordan. British Army officers administered the country in the 1920s. Winston Churchill and T.E. Lawrence advocated Transjordanian independence. Lawrence came to the country to advise on this. All was going well, with Great Britain agreeing to finance the nation’s startup with 200,000 pounds. In 1922 the Wahabi Arabs mucked up the works by invading. The English forces had no choice but to defend themselves and the country. With the mechanized advantage they repelled the invaders. The English set up a military base in Transjordan. Modernization occurred until the 1931 Haddfa Agreement established a common frontier with Iraq. This was the pre-cursor of the Arab League.
With the French causing unrest in Syria, many Syrians arrived as refugees in Transjordan. The English plans to leave were delayed by the instability, requiring their presence. During this time Transjordan went from an English mandate to a protectorate, with foreign relations handled by the English. An uneasy peace ensued throughout the 1930s, until the outbreak of World War II.
Perhaps the most tragic part of World War I, other than the larger evil of Communism that arose, was the fate of Armenia. Armenia had undergone a renaissance of nationalist revolts from 1894-96, resulting in large civilian massacres orchestrated by Turkish sultan Abdul-Hamid II.
The Young Turks imposed forced marches upon the Armenian population over the period 1909-15, sometimes taking on Middle Eastern similarity to the later Bataan Death March. This is was a product of the Ottoman imperial policy, carried out as a continuation from previous atrocities. This escalated because the “mask” of war provided the Turks a cover that allowed them to carry on genocide under the guise of “military necessity.”
The Russians had viewed war in the Caucasus Region to be romantic in nature, celebrated by the writings of Pushkin, Lermontov and young Tolstoy, just as British adventure in Afghanistan and India was turned into lyrical poems masking the death of many a British soldier in the field. These “romantic adventures” actually resulted in bitter oppression, massacre and deportation. 450,000 mountaineers were deported in and around 1864. Atrocities were committed against “outside Turks,” as Turkish nationalists liked to call them. These people included Arabs who were not Turks, Muslim Kurds, Syrian Arab nationalists, and various martyrs. An effort to draw these disparate groups in "holy war" by Turkish caliphates during World War I was resisted.
The Turks attacked the Russians in the Caucasus at the beginning of Winter, 1914, with temperatures in the 20s in the lower passes. Their commander, Pasha Enver had 150,000 men to the Russians 100,000, with a defective supply line. At first, the Russians were drawn in and took huge losses. The plan was to then strike behind them and draw them further to Erzerum and Lake Van. This was the territory of the Seljuk ancestors of the Ottomans. They had won victory over the Byzantines at Manzikert in 1071, marking the “dreadful day” from which their decline to extinction at Constantinople in 1453 dated. The Ottoman Third Army brought 271 pieces of artillery and moved slowly. Half of their 8,000 men died of frostbite in one division in four days. On December 29, 1914, Russian General Mishlaevski counter-attacked, forcing surrender of the Turkish IX Corps. Only 18,000 Turks survived the campaign. 30,000 were said to have died of the cold at elevations of 6,500 feet.
Among the troops employed by the Russians was a division of Christian Armenians, mostly disaffected Ottoman subjects. Under Russian sponsorship, they committed massacres when given the chance. This was used as justification by the Ottomans to scale up the on-going Armenian genocide campaign of 1915-17. It led to the deaths of 700,000 (maybe more, maybe less) men, women and children, forcemarched into the desert to die of starvation and thirst. This aspect of the Armenian marches is separate from previous actions against them. It was “undeclared,” which combined with the fog of war gave the Turks just enough of a deniability clause to dispute the claims of the Armenians. This part of the war was fought in terrible conditions in mountain passes, in a part of the world where the New York Times and the Guardian had no reporters (as opposed to the press coverage of T.E. Lawrence in the warm, wide open spaces of Arabia). It was virtually “secret.” Because of the political realities of post-war Armenia, the genocide faded into history. However, over the years historians have verified the events. Now it is undisputed fact. Nevertheless, to this very day, the secular government of Turkey wavers somewhere between outright denial, partial acceptance of its past, and no real apology to Armenia and Armenians.
The Armenian genocide proceeded the Holocaust. It may have been in the mind of Dwight Eisenhower when he ordered photographers and journalists to record the discoveries at the death camps. He knew that, amazing as it was, these kinds of crimes could be covered up, as had happened to the Armenians. The Ottomans never faced war crimes tribunals or international courts. They basically skated. Now the blame that falls on modern Turks is not any more favorably received than average white Americans being blamed for slavery. The devil works that way.
World War I may also mark the beginning of the Holocaust. Mostly unchronicled were the deaths of between 100,000 and 200,000 Jews and 600,000 expelled from the villages, by Russia. S. Ansky (1863-1920), a Russian-Jewish journalist and playwright, was commissioned to organize wartime relief efforts for Jews in the Russian-occupied territories. He witnessed pogroms that started under the Czar and were enthusiastically carried out by the Communists. They felt the old regime’s treatment of Jews was the only “good work” they had on their record. When the Russian Army entered towns, they immediately gathered all the Jews, who were shot, beaten and had their shops looted. The culture of Jewish attitude in Russia was that “all Jews are spies” or war profiteers. These pogroms were responsible for a huge number of Russian immigrants to the United States. It is very important to note that Adolf Hitler did not start persecution of Jews; he in fact was merely carrying out the “work” of others before he came along.
When World War I ended, President Wilson ordered a mandate for greater Armenia, administered by America. A brief independence did occur, but it did not take. The Bolsheviks began Sovietizing Armenia between 1918-20. Turkish revolutionary movements under Kemal Turk refused to accept Armenian independence outlined by the Treaty of Sevres on August 10, 1920. Squeezed between the Soviets and Turks, Armenia was obliterated as a country. Marxist factions infiltrated the population. By 1921 they were part of a Transcaucasian Soviet Socialist Republic, which included Georgia and Azerbaidzhan. The Soviets and Turks sealed Armenian fate by treaty in 1921, and established friendly post-war relations that gave Armenia no chance of breaking out of the yoke.
Armenian desire for freedom never waned, despite its awful fate under the Ottomans and the Communists. Eventually it was swept up by events of World War II. For this reason, Armenians have always loved the U.S., and successfully immigrated here. Many of them are Christian. They have succeeded in great numbers in America, where their political influence is very strong. Many Armenian-Americans have risen to high places in our society, including two-term California Governor George Deukmejian (1983-91).
Causes Steven Travers Supports
Conservative, Christian, USC, American patriotism