King Edward III of England was born on November 13, 1312 at Windsor Castle.
He was the son of King Edward II and Isabella of France. He reigned as king of England from 1327 until his death in 1377 and is noted for his military success. Restoring royal authority after the disastrous reign of his father, Edward III went on to transform the England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His reign saw vital developments in legislation and government, and in particular the evolution of the English parliament, as well as the ravages of the Black Death. He remains one of only five monarchs to have ruled England for more than fifty years.
Edward was crowned at the age of fifteen, following the deposition of his father. When he was only seventeen years old, Edward III led a coup against the de factoruler of the country, his mother's consort Roger Mortimer, and began his personal reign. After a successful campaign in Scotland in 1333, he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in 1337, starting what would become known as the Hundred Years’ War. Following some initial setbacks, the war went exceptionally well for England; the victories of Crecy and Poitiers led to the highly favorable Treaty of Bretigny. Edward's later years, however, were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and bad health. He died on June 21, 1377 at Sheen Palace from a stroke and was buried at Westminster Abbey. He was succeeded to the throne by his ten year old grandson Richard II, son of the Black Prince, who had died in 1376.
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