Yom Kippur War was launched by Egypt (under Anwar Sadat) and Syria (Hafez al-Assad) against Israel (Golda Meir) in an effort to regain Israeli-occupied territories, the Golan Heights along the northeastern border of Israel, for Syria, and the Sinai Peninsula along the southern border of Israel, for Egypt. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israeli-occupied_territories (Without Syria, it seems very unlikely for Egypt to have acted on its own.) The coordinated attacks on these two fronts took Israel by surprise but Israel was able to fight back with support from the U.S. while Kissinger http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/china/peopleevents/pande02.html played an important role in an attempt to negotiate a peace treaty. The UN ordered a cease fire which took place on October 25th, 1973, ending the military conflicts that lasted for twenty days. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yom_Kippur_War
New documents have emerged recently that reignited the debate as to whether this war could have been avoided and whether or what the participants in this war had learned (unlearned or not learned) from the experience.
From what I understand, the Yom Kippur War shaped the Middle East for the next forty years up to the present with Egypt leading the Arab states coalition in negotiatiating peace in the Middle East. Currenly, with civil war in Syria http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_civil_war and the political unrest in Egypt since the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_Revolution_of_2011 the future course of peace process in the Middle East seems all the more compromised and uncertain.
It has been suggested that it is in the interest of Israel to develop closer diplomatic ties with Turkey, a democratic republic bordering Iran, Syria and Iraq and, for some time now, a nation that has been seeking membership in the European Union. This sounds like a good idea to me. I would have to read up on the subject before I can endorse any definite set pf opinions on this highly complex topic but it would also be interesting to open up some cultural channels for a meaningful and peaceful exchange with Iran. http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/133759/israelis-tehran-...