Obamacare is used as a bad term by the right (Obama said on TV he didn't mind it was called Obamacare). The legislation is called the Affordable Health Care act. Since most health care begins in our local doctors office let's begin there. Five patients in my imagination would be sitting in this hypothetical doctors office.
Doctor's office lobby: One person with Medicare where you normally have premiums and co-pays with exceptions for preventative care which is free, (socialized medicine which has been successful, mainly for people over 65 or disabled). Medicaid (which is low-income based and widely used to insure children in poverty and elderly in nursing homes), Private Insurance (which is attached to well paying jobs or purchased outright, often leaving low paid or part-time workers uninsured, that being mostly women) (also private insurance does not insure pre-existing conditions for one year) and self pay, which is 150 dollars on average for a clinic visit without a test. And a person with the new Affordable Care Insurance, which will work like Medicare in scope. There will be premiums and co-pays just like Medicare. States are today quietly putting people on the these individual insurance exchange rolls and it is will be running full steam by 2014 in each state.
There are also other systems like the VA, ER's have to see anyone in an emergency, (note the new health care legislation will strictly enforce residency/citizenship for service unlike and ER which is obligated by law to see anyone for stabilization but nothing more), also, the prison system (unfortunately the only people garenteed health care by the USA constitution), the small Indian Health care system for the 10 million Native Americans, University student health care (university students need to buy the private insurance offered or are billed self-pay) and the public health care clinic system for community diseases which includes school nurses, plus small clinic programs and some municipalities offering subsidized medical insurance usually at public hospitals with strict local residency requirements. Yes, Obamacare or the Affordable Health Care is an insurance not a building also, keep in mind Kaiser and Blue Cross and any doctor's office that takes Medicare can also take this new insurance also as with Medicare you can still carry private insurance. The big change is going to be going from ER and hospital based to clinics, now that everyone will have some sort of coverage.
This shift from ER/hospital to clinics will be new for the entire health care system, the insurers, the medical staff, and most of all the patients; who all will need to be educated to use the clinic system as it will now be affordable and most importantly available. The private insurers are already ramping up planning increased clinic capacity to capture those dollars while simutaneously fighting tooth and nail through congress to get the legislation squashed.
Some of the things coming up: 2012 increase of payments for Medicaid primary services and allowing low income men on the medicaid roles. Increase of Medicare doctors and nurses 2014 - Insurance exchanges come online for individuals and small businesses with insurance available at a reasonable cost. I have seen one estimate that it would be about 300 a month for an individual and 800 for a family of four. - Discrimination due to pre-existing conditions or gender ceases as of now women have paid higher premiums although in comparison men as a group overall have higher costs over a liftetime than women; even taking into consideration childbirth and living longer. Most importantly everyone will have health insurance and a major medical condition will not impoverish either the individual or the system.